有關木吉他拾音器你所需要知的


我整理了這文章,把我所知道有關木吉他拾音器的知識都分享給你。

木吉他的拾音器總共有4㮔收音方法,分別是下弦枕式(Under-saddle),麥克風(microphone),貼片/吸盤 (Contact)和響孔式(magnetic)。

下弦枕式(Under-saddle)

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是最常見的吉他拾音器,很多吉他原廠的拾音器配置都會是Under-saddle Pickup,使用長條形的感應棒(Piezo),安裝在吉他下弦枕下方。

優點:聲音非常清楚直接,而且不易Feedback,所以非常適合在樂隊中使用。

缺點:由於感應棒本身有一定的厚度,會讓令吉他弦距變高,因此安裝時需要打磨下弦枕。如果沒有打磨好的話,六條弦彈出來的音量會不平均,安裝難度較高。下弦枕式拾音器的聲音比較電和乾,而且無法收到打板聲音。

麥克風(Microphone)

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在吉他琴身內安裝小型的電容麥克風(Condenser Microphone),聲音還原度非常高,在環境安靜的場境下可以得到非常自然的聲音,是唯一可以收到吉他真實聲音的方法。

優點:音色自然而且有空間感,聲音還原度高,可收到吉他聲和打板聲音。

缺點:容易Feedback,對於樂隊內的吉他手較為不方便。

貼片/吸盤 (Contact)

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貼片式拾音器幾乎是所有FingerStyle玩家必備的拾音器,一般是黏貼在面板,琴碼(bridge)下方的位置,感應吉他面板震動,可以收到比較自然温暖的聲音,效果接近麥克風。進階的用家可黏貼多個貼片在吉他琴身的其他位置加強打板的收音。

優點:聲音温暖自然,不易Feedback,可收到吉他聲和打板聲音。

缺點:貼片的擺放位置會影響收音效果,需要有經驗人員安裝。

響孔式(Magnetic)

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安裝在吉他的響孔上,和電吉他拾音器收音原理相似,音質主要跟拾音器有關,與吉他本來的音色無太大關係。響孔拾音器可以無需鑽吉他尾孔,所以如果想多把吉他共用一個拾音器的話,會是很好的選擇。

優點:聲音很乾淨,音色溫暖,容易安裝,不容易feedback。

缺點:由於拾音器夾住了面板,所以吉他的共鳴可能會有一些影響,且無法收到打板聲。由於擺放位置的問題,右手的彈奏位置可能需要調整一下。尼龍弦吉他無法使用。


 

了解完4種收音方式後,所有的拾音器可分為主動式(Active)被動式(Passive)

主動式(Active)的拾音器需要用電池,絕大部分原廠配的拾音器都是主動式,吉他琴身內會有電池,前級(Preamp),以及大部分都有音量音色控制台。

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好處:不需要另外買前級(Preamp)也能有大音量的輸出,而且大

部分也可以吉他上調音量和音色。

缺點:價格一般較高,有時需要鬆掉弦線才能換電池,吉他內的電線和零件增加,如果沒有安裝好的話,琴身內有時會有雜音。

被動式(Passive)的拾音器無需在吉他內放電池,也是很多專業演奏家所選用的。

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好處:不需考慮何時換電池,安裝後對吉他的重量幾乎沒有改變,而且琴身內的電線也比較少。

缺點:一般建議需要配合前級(Preamp)使用,不然的話音量比較小。


雙系統拾音器

由於每款拾音器的收音都各有利弊,所以進階的用家一般都會選用雙系統甚至是多系統收音。

最常見的FingerStyle雙系統是響孔式+貼片,這也最很多大師們用的拾音器,可以收到吉他聲和打板聲,而且不易Feedback,非常適合舞台演出使用。

我個人用的是Sunrise+K&K pure mini的組合,而Sunrise也是押尾光太郎,Sungha Jung,Andy mckee等一眾大師所選用,被譽為是最佳的響孔式拾音器。

麥克風+貼片我覺得是最能還原吉他原音的組合,也非常適合錄音時使用,指彈大師Don Ross曾說,他認為最佳的吉他拾音方式最少要是雙系統而且必需有麥克風。使用這個組合的最大壞處是現場使用時要小心feedback。我的古典吉他則是用K&K Trinity Pro的麥克風+貼片,因為下弦枕式拾音器對吉他的原音有一些影響,所以我選用這種對古典吉他音色完全沒有壞影響的組合。

麥克風+下弦枕式則是原廠最常見的雙系統拾音器,一般會有一個控制台給你調麥克風的音量大小,防止有太嚴重的Feedback問題。

更發燒的用家加會混合3或以上拾音器,麥克風+貼片+響孔等…


立體聲(Stereo)或單聲道(mono)

幾乎所有原裝的主動式拾音器都是單聲道的,即是不管你的吉他上有多少個拾音器,最後輸出時也會合併成一個音軌。對專業用家對來無法單獨調每個拾音器的EQ是非常不方便的,但對一般用家的好處是,無需買立體聲導線和立體聲前級等的設備。

專業的指彈吉他手都用立體聲的拾音器,每個拾音器都可以獨音調高中低頻EQ,音量,以及混響等的效果。但就需要拾音器,前級,導線和效果器等的配合了。

有關拾音器的價格,如果是國內的雙系統拾音器可能幾百一千元就能買到雙系統的拾音器,當然聲音還是有分別,但勝在便宜。

進口的拾音器一般一個都要近千元左右,如果資金有限,但又想有更好更穩定的音色,可以先買進口的單系統拾音器,日後再升級成雙系統,這樣就不用整個系統換掉,而且聲音更好。當然記得要找專業人員幫你安裝。

如果你想你的吉他能在舞台上發出好的聲音,你需要有以下幾樣東西(括號內是我個人用的):

  1. 好的拾音器 (Sunrise, K&K)
  2. 好的前級 (K&K, AER)
  3. 好的導線 (神鳴KamiNari)
  4. 最重要的是有好的演奏技術…..(請去找好的老師去升級技術)

 

有關更多Pickup查詢請到 www.guitarholdings.com

I collated this article and shared with you what I knew about the acoustic guitar pickup.

There are four types of guitar pickup:  under-saddle, internal microphone, contact, and magnetic.

 

Under-saddle pickups

This is the most common guitar pickup, and many factory-made guitar pickups are of this type, which uses a piezo-electric strip, mounted under the guitar saddle.

Advantages: the sound is very clear and direct, and it’s not prone to feedback, so it’s great for strumming in a band context.

Disadvantages: because the piezo itself has a certain thickness, it will make the guitar string action higher, so to install it we need to sand the saddle lower. Installation is difficult, because if this isn’t done well, the volume of the six strings will be uneven.

The sound of this pickup is more electric and dry, and it doesn’t pick up percussion on the guitar body.

Internal microphones

Installing a small condenser microphone inside the guitar body gives a very authentic, natural sound in a quiet environment. A microphone is the only way to pick up the complete sound of the guitar.

Advantages: the tone is natural and has a sense of space, with a high fidelity of sound reproduction. It also picks up percussive sounds.

Disadvantages: prone to feedback, so no good for playing in a band.

 

Contact pickups

A contact pickup is almost all Fingerstyle players must-have pickup, generally glued to the top, below the bridge, sensing the vibration of the guitar top. It gives a warm, natural sound, similar to a microphone. Advanced users can stick multiple contact pickups in positions around the guitar body pick up more percussive sounds.

Adventages: warm and natural sound, not prone to feedback. It can pick up the sound of guitar and percussive sound

Disadvantages: the placement of the contact pickup will affect the sound, so you need to have an experienced professional install it.

 

Magnetic pickups

This is the type of pickup used on electric guitars. On an acoustic guitar it is mounted in the sound hole. The sound quality is mainly related to the pickup, and the original tone of the guitar has not much to do with it. You can route the cable through the sound hole instead of drilling a hole in the guitar tail, so it would be a good choice if you don’t want to drill a hole, or if you want to use the same pickup on more than one guitar.

Advantages: sound is very clean, warm tone, easy to install, not prone to feedback. 

disadventage:because the pickup is clamped to the soundhole, the guitar’s resonance may be affected and it won’t be able to pick up percussive sounds. Its position in the sound hole can impede the right hand. It won’t work with nylon strings.

Once you know the four ways to pick up sound, all pickups can be further divided into active and passive.

 

Active pickups require batteries, most factory-installed guitar pickups are active. The guitar body will have a battery and preamp, and most also have a volume & tone control panel.

 

Advantage: you don’t need to buy an additional preamp to get a high volume output.

Some control panels can also adjust the volume and tone of the guitar.

Disadvantages: the price is generally higher. Sometimes you need to loosen the strings to change the battery. There are more parts and wires inside the guitar, which may make the guitar heavier or cause unwanted noise.

Passive pickups don’t require a battery in the guitar and are the choice of many professional performers.

Advantages: you don’t need to remember to change the battery. Very lightweight, and there are fewer wires inside the body.

Disadvantages: 

It is generally recommended to use passive pickups with a preamp, otherwise the volume is relatively small.

  1. Dual System Pickup

Because each pickup has its advantages and disadvantages, advanced players often choose dual-system or even multi-system pickups.

The most common fingerstyle dual system is magnetic + contact, which many masters use to pick up guitar and percussive sounds and is not prone to feedback, making it ideal for stage performances.

I personally use a combination of Sunrise and K&K Pure Mini pickups. Sunrise is also chosen by lots of top players such as Kotaro Oshio, Sungha Jung, and Andy Mckee, who are all known for their great sound. 

On the other hand, I think microphone + contact is the best combination to maintain the original tone of the guitar. It also records very well. Master fingerstyle guitarist Don Ross claims the best onboard pickup must be at least a dual system which includes a microphone.

The biggest disadvantage of using this combination is that you should be careful of feedback when using it on stage.

My classical guitar has a microphone + contact system called K&K Trinity Pro, which gives a good, natural sound.

Microphone + undersaddle are the most common dual-system factory installed pickups, and there is usually a control panel to adjust the microphone’s volume in the mix, to reduce feedback problems.

Some zealous players will mix three or more pickups, microphones, contact, magnetic, etc.

Stereo or mono: almost all factory installed active pickups are mono, which means that no matter how many pickups you have on your guitar, the final output will be combined into a single track.  This is fine for most users, and the benefit is that you don’t have to buy stereo cables and a stereo preamp. Professionals may use stereo pickups that allow EQ, volume, and effects to be adjusted for each channel individually, but this requires more equipment. 

As for the price of pickups, Chinese-made dual-system pickups can be as cheap as HKD200 to HKD2000. Of course, the sound is not as good, but is cheap.

Imported pickups are generally at least HKD1000. If your funds are limited but want to have a better, more stable tone, you can buy an imported single pick-up, and then upgrade to a dual system to improve the sound later, so that you don’t need to replace the entire system.

Of course, remember to ask a professional to install it for you.

If you want your guitar to make a good sound on stage, you need to have the following. (My personal preference is shown in parentheses):

Good Pickup (Sunrise, K&K)

Good preamp (K-K, AER)

Good cable (Kaminari) 

The most important thing to have good playing skills. (Please find a good teacher to upgrade your fingers!)

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